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    NSG 464 Introduction to Nursing Research, Evidence Based Literature Review

    NSG 464 Introduction to Nursing Research

    Evidence Based Literature Review:

    Part I



    Nurses who hold baccalaureate degrees are not expected to design major research projects. However, they are expected to understand the research process.  Students in this course will at the completion of the semester be able to read and critically evaluate research studies and apply research evidence to their practice.

    In this course students will complete an “evidence based literature review” on a nursing problem of their choosing.  This evidence based literature review assignment is broken into four parts over the course of the semester.  This step wise process is designed to assist the students learning and allows for comprehensive faculty feedback as the literature review is completed.  The directions below are for Part I.  Use the evidence based paper template provided –the document is labeled EVIDENCE BASED TEMPLATE.


    TO BEGIN: During the first couple weeks of the semester, observe clinical nursing problems in your clinical setting. Also, query the nursing staff on your unit about challenges they may be encountering in their practice. Identify a nursing problem/topic that is of interest to you from your own or another clinical setting.

    Example: You are working on a surgical unit and observe the patients who undergo certain types of surgical procedures are not achieving pain relief with regularly prescribed pain medication. What nursing interventions, other than administering pain medications, can be used by the nurse to achieve effective pain relief in postoperative patients?


    Complete all 5 sections below using the EVIDENCE BASED TEMPLATE:

    1. On the title page develop a title and running head for your topic.


    1. Begin the body of your paper by answering the following in approximately two-three paragraphs.

    –Describe your chosen topic and the exact nursing problem you are going to address with completion of this literature review (inform your reader so they will be able to understand what you are going to be doing your literature review on)

    -Describe the clinical setting where this is a problem

    -Also, describe any other pertinent information to inform your reader about the topic/problem (is this a problem only at your facility OR why this nursing problem is of special interest to you?)


    .  . . 


    1. Write out your identified problem using the PICO format listed below. (See examples provided.)

    P--Patient Population

    I—Nursing Intervention you are proposing to help solve the nursing problem you have identified

    C–Comparison intervention (what nursing intervention is currently being used that you want to compare to your proposed nursing intervention)

    O—Outcome (what is the goal you hope to achieve if you use your proposed nursing intervention on the identified nursing problem?)


    P = Patients living in long term care facility are at risk for pressure ulcers (identified problem and clinical setting)                                                                                                                                I = Pressure ulcer prevention program                                                                                                   C = regular standard of care                                                                                                                 O = signs of emerging pressure ulcers

    P = Postpartum patients delivering a healthy baby

    I = Skin-to-skin contact immediately after delivery and lasting up to one hour

    C = Baby removed from mother and wrapped in blankets

    O = Exclusive breastfeeding while in the hospital


    P = people with diabetes

    I = diabetes self-management education and support

    C = medications alone

    O = improved glycemic control


    **Note the above are just examples of previous research problems, we are wanting you to choose a topic that has not been extensively researched and presents an ongoing clinical challenge. Your instructors are happy to answer questions about topic ideas.





    1. Write out your sample research question for your identified problem and proposed nursing intervention (see examples below).


    Sample Research Question: In patients living in a long-term care facility who are at risk for pressure ulcers (P), how does a pressure ulcer prevention program (I) compared to the standard of care (ex. Turning q. 2 hrs) (C) affect the signs of emerging pressure ulcers (O)?

    Sample Research Question: In people with diabetes(P), what is the effect of diabetes self-management education(I) on blood glucose control (O) compared with medications(C).


    Sample Research Question: Will immediate skin-to-skin contact (STS) after delivery, and lasting up to one hour(I), increase the number of postpartum patients in the hospital (P) who exclusively breastfeed until discharged from the hospital (O) as compared with patients who have the infant removed immediately upon birth?


    To help you write out your research question using your PICO information you can use one of the following research questions suggestions. Just plug in your PICO information. Use a research question that best suits what you are proposing.  You may use one of the following question templates to help with writing out your research question:


    THERAPY Research question:     In ___________________, what is the effect of ____________ on ___________ compared with ____________?

    ETIOLOGY Research question:   Are ___________who have _________ at _________risk for/of _________compared with ____________?


    PREVENTION Research question:    For __________ does the use of __________reduce the future risk of __________ compared with ____________?


    PROGNOSIS Research question:  Does __________ influence _________ in patients with ___________?


    MEANING Research question:  How do ________ diagnosed with ________ perceive __________?


    Lastly, provide a reference page which includes 4 articles you have found related to your proposed nursing problem. The articles you have found should show support for the nursing intervention you are proposing as a solution to your identified problem.  The articles need to be from peer reviewed journals such as those found on CINAHL. Use correct APA reference format for your articles on a separate Reference page.

    In the final paper, you will be required to have 8 total articles so the 4 here will assist you in getting started and allow for instructor feedback early in the literature review process.



    .  . . 





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