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Categories of antimicrobial agents

Antimicrоbiаl agents are essential cоmpоnents in the treatment of various bacterial infections as they help to kill or prevent the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, and protozoans. Prior to the discovery of antimicrobial agents, treatment options for patients with bacterial infections were limited. For many patients, treatment often resulted in the amputation of limbs or even death. Today, treatment options for bacterial infections typically have a more positive prognosis. Due to the various types of infections presented in patients, it is essential to be able to identify the underlying cause of the infection—whether bacterial or viral—before recommending drug treatments. This will help you identify whether or not an antimicrobial agent would be appropriate and which specific agent would target the infection. In this Assignment, you consider the appropriate use of antimicrobial agents for infections.
To prepare:
Review this week’s media presentation on principles of antimicrobial therapy, as well as Chapter 8 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text.
Consider the categories of antimicrobial agents.
Think about differences between viral and bacterial infections.
Reflect on why proper identification of the infection is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent.

Write a 3- page paper that addresses the following:
a) Describe the categories of antimicrobial agents.
b) Describe differences between viral and bacterial infections.
c) Explain why proper identification of viral and bacterial infections is key to selecting the proper antimicrobial agent
Required Readings
Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.
Arcangelo, V. P.,  Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A.  (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Chapter 8, “Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy” (pp. 111-134)
This chapter covers factors that impact the selection of an antimicrobial treatment regimen. It also examines the clinical uses, adverse events, and drug interactions of various antimicrobial agents such as penicillin.

Chapter 12, “Fungal Infections of the Skin” (pp. 163-172)
This chapter explores the pathophysiology of several fungal infections of the skin as well as related drug treatments and examines the importance of patient education when managing these infections.

Chapter 14, “Bacterial Infections of the Skin” (pp. 181-196)
This chapter begins by examining causes of bacterial infections. It then explores the importance of selecting an appropriate agent for treating bacterial infections.

Chapter 32, “Urinary Tract Infection” (pp. 519-526)
This chapter covers drugs used to treat urinary tract infections and identifies special considerations when treating geriatric patients, pediatric patients, and women.

Chapter 35, “Sexually Transmitted Infections” (pp. 565-590)
This chapter outlines the causes, pathophysiology, and drug treatment of six sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhea, syphilis, and human papilloma virus infection (HPV). It also examines the importance of selecting the proper agent and monitoring patient response to treatment.

Chapter 49, “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” (pp. 843-860)
This chapter presents the causes, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and prevention methods for HIV. It also covers various methods of drug treatment and patient factors to consider when selecting, administering, and managing drug treatments.
Krummenacher, I., Cavassini, M., Bugnon, O., & Schneider, M. (2011). An interdisciplinary HIV-adherence program combining motivational interviewing and electronic antiretroviral drug monitoring. AIDS Care, 23(5), 550–561.
Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article analyzes medication adherence in HIV patients and examines factors that increase adherence as well as factors that contribute to termination or discontinuation of treatment.
Drugs.com. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.drugs.com/

This website presents a comprehensive review of prescription and over-the-counter drugs including information on common uses and potential side effects. It also provides updates relating to new drugs on the market, support from health professionals, and a drug-drug interactions checker.
Scourfield, A., Waters, L., & Nelson, M. (2011). Drug combinations for HIV: What’s new? Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 9(11), 1001–1011.
Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

This article examines current therapies and strategies for treating HIV patients. It also examines factors that impact selection of therapy, including drug interactions, personalization of therapy, costs, management of comorbidities, and patient response.
Required Media
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Antimicrobials. Baltimore, MD: Author.

This media presentation outlines principles of antimicrobial therapy

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 7 minutes.
Optional Resources
Mayer, K. H., & Krakower, D. (2012). Antiretroviral medication and HIV prevention: New steps forward and New Questions. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(4), 312–314.
Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

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